Torticollis is a condition in which the neck muscles cause the head to turn or rotate to the side. Torticollis may be due to changes in genes, often passed down in the family, or due to problems in the nervous system, upper spine, or muscles. The condition may also occur without a known cause.
With torticollis present at birth, it may occur if the baby's head was in the wrong position while growing in the womb or if the muscles or blood supply to the neck were injured.
Symptoms of torticollis include:
- Limited movement of the head
- Head tremor
- Neck pain
- Shoulder that is higher than the other
- Stiffness of the neck muscles
- Swelling of the neck muscles (possibly present at birth)
Exams and tests
The health care provider will perform a physical exam. The exam may show if the head is rotated, tilted or leaning forward or backward. In severe cases, the entire head is pulled and turned to one side. It may also show shortened or larger neck muscles.
Tests that may be done include:
- X-ray of the neck
- CT scan of the head and neck
- Electromyogram (EMG) to see which muscles are most affected
- MRI of the head and neck
- Blood tests to look for medical conditions that are linked to torticollis
Treating torticollis that is present at birth involves stretching the shortened neck muscle. Passive stretching and positioning are used in infants and small children. In passive stretching, a device such as strap, a person, or something else is used to hold the body part in a certain position. These treatments are often successful, especially if they are started within 3 months of birth. Surgery to correct the neck muscle may be done in the preschool years, if other treatment methods fail.
Torticollis that is caused by damage to the nervous system, spine, or muscles is treated by finding the cause of the disorder and treating it. Depending on the cause, treatment may include:
- Physical therapy (applying heat, traction to the neck, and massage to help relieve head and neck pain).
- Stretching exercises and neck braces to help with muscle spasms.
- Taking medicines such as baclofen to reduce neck muscle contractions.
- Injecting botulinum.
- Trigger point injections to relieve pain at a particular point.
- Surgery of the spine might be needed when the torticollis is due to dislocated vertebrae. In some cases, surgery involves destroying some of the nerves in the neck muscles, or using brain stimulation.